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Poisoner in Chief: Sidney Gottlieb and the CIA Search for Mind Control By Stephen Kinzer

"When Churchill spoke of a world “made darker by the dark lights of perverted science,” he was referring to the revolting experiments conducted on human beings by Nazi doctors in the concentration camps. But his remarks might with equal justice have been applied to the activities of the CIA’s Sidney Gottlieb … Indeed, what Gottlieb and his CIA henchmen did was only in degree different from the activities which had sent a number of Nazi scientists to the gallows at Nuremberg in 1946 … Drugs were not Gottlieb’s only weapon against the CIA’s enemies. He was also involved in assassination plots which at this distance read like something out of a Jacobean revenge play." The Coldest, The Washington Post December 16, 2001, Original “When Churchill spoke of a world”: “Sidney Gottlieb,” Times, March 12, 1999. (Could not find)

"The value to the US of Japanese biological weapons data is of such importance to national security as to far outweigh the value accruing from war-crimes prosecution" Quote From General Douglas MacArthur, United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency, Source NCBI

"Can accurate information be obtained from willing or unwilling individuals?

Can Agency personnel (or persons of interest to this agency) be conditioned to prevent any outside power from obtaining information from them by any known means?…

Can we guarantee total amnesia under any and all conditions?

Can we “alter” a person’s personality? How long will it hold?

Can we devise a system for making unwilling subjects into willing agents?…

How can [drugs] be best concealed in a normal or commonplace item, such as candy, cigarettes, liqueur, wines, coffee, tea, beer, gum, water, common medicines, Coke, toothpaste?…

Can we … extract complicated formulas from scientists, engineers, etc., if unwilling?

Can we extract details of gun emplacements, landing fields, factories, mines?…

Can we also have them make detailed drawing, sketches, plans?

Could any of this be done under field conditions and in a very short space of time?" Project Bluebird - CIA 1952

"There was deep concern over the issue of brainwashing,” Richard Helms explained years later. We felt that it was our responsibility not to lag behind the Russians or the Chinese in this field, and the only way to find out what the risks were was to test things such as LSD and other drugs that could be used to control human behavior.” Remembering Brainwashing The NYT July 6th 2008

"Specific research should be undertaken to develop new chemicals or drugs, or to improve known elements for use in Artichoke work. An exhaustive study should be made of various gases and aerosols … Gas guns, jets, or sprays, both concealed [and] open, should be studied. In addition, the problem of permanent brain injury and amnesia following lack of oxygen or exposure to other gases should be studied. The effects of high and low pressures on individuals should be examined. A considerable amount of research could profitably be expended in the field of sound. This research would include the effect on human beings of various types of vibrations, monotonous sounds, concussion, ultra-high frequency, ultra-sonics, the effect of constantly repeated words, sounds, continuous suggestion, non-rhythmic sounds, whispering, etc. Bacteria, plant cultures, fungi, poisons of various types … are capable of producing illnesses which in turn would produce high fevers, delirium, etc. The removal of certain basic food elements such as sugar, starch, calcium, vitamins, proteins, etc. from the food of an individual over a certain period of time will produce psychological and physical reactions in an individual. A study should be made to determine whether or not the removal of certain food elements from the diet of prisoners over a given period of time will materially condition them for Artichoke work. Whether an individual will reveal information as a result of electroshock, or while in an electroshock coma, has not yet been demonstrated … Whether electroshock can produce controlled amnesias does not appear to be established. If an electronically induced sleep could be obtained, and that sleep is used as a means for gaining hypnotic control of an individual, this apparatus might be of extreme value to the Artichoke work. The Agency under no circumstances would consider [lobotomy and brain surgery] as an operative measure. However, it is felt that the subject could be examined. Special research should be conducted to determine the effect of long and continuous exposure of individuals to infra-red and ultra-violet light. There are a great many psychological techniques that could be used in connection with the Artichoke work [including] moving or vibrating rooms; distorted rooms; the deliberate creation on an anxiety condition; the creation of panic, fear, or the exploitation of established phobias, etc.; the effect of heat and cold; the effect of dampness, dryness or saturated or dry air; the general problem of disorientation; [and] completely soundproof areas. It would be a great advantage if a small, effective hypo-spray device should be designed along the lines of a fountain pen. This, of course, would necessarily have to include some effective chemical or drug that could be used in this connection. This would be a very valuable weapon" “Specific research should be undertaken”: Central Intelligence Agency, “Special Research for Artichoke,” April 24, 1952, DOC_0000184365, ASC_0000184365.TXT

"We might call it, in its new form, “brain warfare.” The target of this warfare is the minds of men on a collective and on an individual basis. Its aim is to condition the mind so that it no longer reacts on a free will or rational basis, but a response to impulses implanted from outside … The human mind is the most delicate of instruments. It is so finely adjusted, so susceptible to the impact of outside influences, that it is proving malleable in the hands of sinister men. The Soviets are now using brain perversion as one of their main weapons in prosecuting the Cold War. Some of these techniques are so subtle and so abhorrent to our way of life that we have recoiled from facing up to them." April 10, 1953, Summary of Remarks by Mr. Allen W. Dulles at the National Alumni Conference of the Graduate Council of Princeton University, Hot Springs, Va., on Brain Warfare, Page 1

"A confidential informant of this office advised on July 1st that his former supervisor in the Bureau of Narcotics, George White … has become associated with the CIA in an ‘ultra-secret’ assignment as a consultant,” the report said. “White and CIA have rented dual apartments at 81 Bedford Street, New York City. In one of these apartments has been set up a bar and quarters for entertainment, while the other apartment is being used by the CIA for the purpose of taking motion pictures through an x-ray mirror of the activities in the former apartment.” George Hunter White FBI File Page 18, Memory Hole

"1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.

2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.

3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.

6. Materials which will render the indication of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.

7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called “brainwashing.”

8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.

9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.

10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.

11. Substances which will produce “pure” euphoria with no subsequent let-down.

12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.

13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.

14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.

15. Substances which will promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.

16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.

17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatever." Senate MKUltra Hearing: Appendix C – Documents Referring to Subprojects, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources. August 3, 1977, Page 167

"For the past four years the Central Intelligence Agency has been actively engaged in research on a group of powerful chemicals affecting the human mind called psychochemicals. We have developed extensive professional contacts, experience and a considerable amount of information on many psychochemicals including in particular a material known as LSD. This Agency is continuing its interest in this field, and in the light of its accumulated experience offers its cooperation and assistance to research and development programs which the Department of Defense is considering at this time. Since 1951 this Agency has carried out a program of research which has provided important information on the nature of the abnormal behavior produced by LSD and the way this effect varies with such factors as size of dose, differences in the individual and environment. The behavioral effects of repeated doses given over a long time [Page 737]has been studied. We have established that individuals may develop a tolerance to LSD. A search for possible antidotes is being made. It has been found that LSD produces remarkable mental effects when taken in exceedingly small doses. The foregoing became increasingly interesting when it was recently discovered that LSD could be synthesized in quantity.

4. There are many characteristics of LSD and other psychochemicals which either have not been studied or require further study." FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1950–1955, THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, 1950–1955

The minute-taker, Robert Johnson, said in the interview that he vividly recalled the president turning to Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, "in the full hearing of all those in attendance, and saying something to the effect that Lumumba should be eliminated". Mr Johnson recalled: "There was stunned silence for about 15 seconds and the meeting continued." President ‘Ordered Murder’ of Congo Leader,” Guardian, August 9, 2000

"I WAS USED TO SURPRISES IN THE CONGO, but nothing prepared me for a cable from Headquarters that landed on my desk on September 19, 1960… About a week later, I watched a man I recognized ge

t up from a table at a cafe across the street as I left the embassy. He was a senior officer, a highly respected chemist, whom I had known for some time… We sat down and he told me the story. He had come to the Congo carrying deadly poisons to assassinate Lumumba, and I was to do the job. I’ll never forget my reaction of total, fall-to-the-floor shock. “Jesus H. Christ!” I exploded. “Isn’t this unusual?“Who authorized this i asked. President Eisenhower,” Joe said. “I wasn’t there when he approved it, but Dick Bissell said that Eisenhower wanted Lumumba removed.” "It’s your responsibility to carry out the operation, you alone,” he said. “The details are up to you, but it’s got to be clean—nothing that can be traced back to the U.S. government.” "Take this,” he said, handing it over. “With the stuff that’s in there, no one will ever be able to know that Lumumba was assassinated.”" Larry Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone, Page 107, 108, 109

"Scheider explained that the toxic material was to be injected into some substance

that Lumumba would ingest: "it had to do with anything he could get to his mouti, whether it was food or a toothbrush, * * * [so] that

some of the material could get to his mouth."

"concerning the most effective method of poisoning Castro. (I.G. Report, pp. 23-33) There is some evidence that Giancana or Rosselli originated the idea of depositing a poison pill in Castro's drink to give the "asset" a chance to escape. (1.G. Report, p. 25) The Support Chief recalled Rosselli's request for something "nice and clean, without getting into any kind of out and out ambushing", pref- erably a poison that would disappear without a trace. (O.C. 5/30/75, p. 116) The Inspector General's Report cited the Support Chief as stating that the Agency had first considered a "gangland-style killing" in which Castro would be gunned down. Giancana reportedly opposed the idea because it would be difficult to recruit someone for such a dangerous operation, and suggested instead the. use of poison." U.S. Senate, An Interim Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975), Page 80. (Extended quote from hearing)

"We have found concrete evidence of at least eight plots involving the CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro from 1960 to 1965.1 Although some of the assassination plots did not advance beyond the stage of planning and preparation, one plot, involving the use of underworld figures, reportedly twice progressed to the point of sending poison pills to Cuba and dispatching teams to commit the deed. Another plot involved furnishing weapons and other assassination devices to a Cuban dissident. The proposed assassination devices ran the gamut from high-powered rifles to poison pills, poison pens, deadly bacterial powders, and other devices which strain the imagination." U.S. Senate, An Interim Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975), Page 71. (Extended quote from hearing)

"Richard Helms, now Ambassador to Iran,

testified that "there was a flat-out effort ordered by the White House, the President,. Bobby Kennedy who was after all his man, his right hand in these matters, to unseat the Castro government, to do everything possible to get rid of it by whatever device could be found and that was the reason for mounting this large operation in Miami to work on this very problem. And the Bay of Pigs was a part of this effort and after the Bay of Pigs failed, there was even a greater push to try to get rid of this Communist influence 90 miles from the United States shores. In response to a question concerning "Who might have been the driving forces from the White House in efforts to do something about Castro" Helms responded, "Well, the principal driving force was the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy. There isn't any question about this." “Summary of Facts: Investigation of CIA Involvement in Plans to Assassinate Foreign Leaders,” Page 54,

"We must always remember to thank the CIA and the Army for LSD. That's what people forget. Everything is the opposite of what it is, isn't it, Harry? So get out the bottle, boy... and relax. They invented LSD to control people and what they did was give us freedom. Sometimes it works in mysterious ways its wonders to perform" “Playboy Interview: John Lennon,” Playboy, January 1981,

“CIA Recruited Cat to Bug Russians,” Telegraph, November 4, 2001,

“Early in 1973, Dr. Gottlieb, then C/TSD [chief of the Technical Services Division], called [redacted] and me to his office and requested that we review our Branch holdings and assure him that there were no extant records of the drug research program which had been terminated many years before,” a CIA psychologist wrote in a memo two years later. “Dr. Gottlieb explained that Mr. Helms, in the process of vacating his chair as DCI, had called him and said, in effect, ‘Let’s take this with us’ or ‘Let’s let this die with us’ … There were no relevant investigations taking place at the time, and no relevant caveats on reduction of files. Mr. Helms seemed to be saying, ‘It was our bath; let us clean the tub." Early in 1973, Dr. Gottlieb, then C/TSD”: Central Intelligence Agency, Memorandum for Director, OTS,” August 19, 1975

“Bill, do you really have to present all this material to us?” Rockefeller asked. “We realize that there are secrets you fellows need to keep, and so nobody here is going to take it amiss if you feel that there are some questions you can’t answer quite as fully as you seem to feel you have to.” William Colby, Honourable Men My Life in The CIA Page 400

"On one occasion during the early phases of this program, LSD was administered to an employee of the Department of the Army without his knowledge while he was attending a meeting with CIA personnel working on the drug project. Before receiving the LSD, the subject had participated in discussions where the testing of such substances on unsuspecting subjects was agreed to in principle. However, this individual was not made aware that he had been given LSD until about 20 minutes after it had been administered. He developed serious side effects and was sent to New York with a CIA escort for psychiatric treatment. Several days later, he jumped from a tenth floor window of his room and died as a result" The Rockefeller Commission’s report: Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities within the United States, June 1975, Page 227

"The earliest of the CIA’s major programs involving the use of chemical and biological agents, Project Bluebird, was … investigating the possibilities of control of an individual by application of special interrogation techniques. In August 1951 the project was renamed Artichoke … Overseas interrogations utilizing a combination of sodium pentothal and hypnosis, after physical and psychiatric examination of the subjects, were also part of Artichoke. MK-ULTRA was the principal CIA program involving the research and development of chemical and biological agents … LSD was one of the materials tested in the MK-ULTRA project. Because MK-ULTRA records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MK-ULTRA materials by the CIA overseas." U.S. Senate, Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1976) Page 385-395

"We now do have corroborating information that some of the unwitting drug testing was carried out in; what is known in the intelligence trade as safe; houses in San Francisco and in New; York City, and we have identified that three individuals were involved in this undertaking, whereas we previously reported there was only one person. We also know now that some unwitting testing took place on criminal sexual psychopaths confined at a State hospital, and; that additionally research was done on a knockout or K drug inparallel with research to develop painkillers for cancer patients." Project MKULTRA, the CIA's program of research in behavioral modification: joint hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, August 3, 1977. Page 12 (Extended quote than in book), CIA Director Stansfield Turner Testimony

"every; single; document; that the; staff reviews has Mr. Gottlieb's name on it and you come up to tell us that; we don't have to worry any more, we have these other final facts, and Mr. Gottlieb has not been talked to?" Project MKULTRA, the CIA's program of research in behavioral modification: joint hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, August 3, 1977 Page 47

"So you knew during this period of time that this was being indirectly funded by the CIA? Dr. ISBELL. Oh, yes. Senator KENNEDY. To your knowledge, were the participants in these tests offered hard drugs such as morphine;? Dr. ISBELL. Yes; that was the custom in those days… The ethical codes were not so highly developed, and there was a great need to know in order to protect the public in assessing the potential use of narcotics … So it was very necessary, and I personally think we did a very excellent job.” U.S. Senate, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure of the Committee on the Judiciary: Biomedical and Behavioral Research (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975 Page 253-254

"A man’s sense of identity depends upon a continuity in his surroundings, habits, appearance, actions, relations either others, etc. Detention permits the interrogator to cut through these links. Control of the source’s environment permits the interrogator to determine his diet, sleep pattern and other fundamentals. Manipulating these into irregularities, so that the subject becomes disoriented, is very likely to create feelings of fear and helplessness. The chief effect of arrest and detention, and particularly of solitary confinement, is to deprive the subject of many or most of the sounds, tastes, smells, and tactile sensations to which he has grown accustomed. Results produced only after weeks or months of imprisonment in an ordinary cell can be duplicated in hours or days in a cell which has no light (or artificial light which never varies), which is sound-proofed, in which odors are eliminated, etc. An environment still more subject to control, such as a water-tank or iron lung, is even more effective. Drugs can be effective in overcoming resistance not dissolved by other techniques. The principal coercive techniques are arrest, detention, the deprivation of sensory stimuli, threats and fear, debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, and drugs. The usual effect of coercion is regression. The interrogatee’s mature defenses crumble as he becomes more childlike. The electric current should be known in advance, so that transformers and other modifying devices will be on hand if needed. The profound moral objection to applying duress past the point of irreversible psychological damage has been stated. Judging the validity of other ethical arguments about coercion exceeds the scope of this paper." KUBARK manual was written: Central Intelligence Agency, Human Resources Exploitation Manual, 1963, "The Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation of Resistant Sources," Page 5 onwards

Author Interviews

“That period, up until about 1954, was a wild and woolly time at the CIA,” one retired CIA officer recalled decades later. “It was the old OSS mentality: ‘Go out and do it. Doesn’t matter if it’s a good or bad idea, go do it. We’re at war, so anything is justified. We’re smarter than most people, we operate in secret, we have access to intelligence, and we know what the real threats are. No one else does."

According to his son Eric, he became “quite agitated, and was having a serious confusion with separating reality from fantasy.” Interview with Eric Olson about his Dad Frank Olson being spiked with LSD by the CIA

"I think what happened was that at the Deep Creek meeting, they gave Frank a chance to recant. I don’t know whether he said “Fuck you!” but in any case, he wouldn’t do it. Then, when he got home, he had second thoughts. He began to realize that this could have really heavy implications for himself and his family. The “terrible mistake” was that he didn’t recant. In a broader sense, it was that he really didn’t understand the people he was dealing with. He thought his opinions would count for something. But their attitude was, “You might make this shit, but we control the operation and we don’t take any crap from scientists.” It wasn’t until the last minute that he realized what he was up against." Interview with Eric Olson

"When he lectured to our group in 1958, he was considered by all of us a strange person, someone who was beyond the pale, doing all sorts of strange things. I thought, “I hope I don’t have anything to do with this guy.” He was kind of dismissed as an oddball. They flipped off his name and laughed at it. It was kind of, “That crazy guy.” He was definitely not a mainstream operations officer. I made a decision of my own never to have anything to do with this guy. He was so far out in the things he was doing that by and large he was considered beyond the pale … You’re told that your country wants you to do this super-secret thing. It’s not your role to say whether it’s a good idea or not. Your job is to develop it. Gottlieb worked his way up in the ranks doing what he was told to do—not by questioning orders, but trying to figure out how to do what was asked … We knew there was something going on with LSD experiments. I can’t remember ever seeing a document, but it was something that just kind of filtered down. He was not an operator. He was a scientist, like the people who developed the atomic bomb. If they were told that the bomb was going to be dropped on a civilian population in Japan, at least some would have objected. But many of them thought they were just creating a capacity that might or might not be used. They soldiered on and did their technical work. He was so low key—a little grey man. An hour after his appearance before you, you’d have trouble recognizing him in a crowd. He was the sort of esoteric scientist so far removed from the practicalities of real life that you had trouble taking him seriously. But you couldn’t dismiss him entirely." CIA Officer BD

"One day that summer, we were out at the house swimming. The parents had gone to the store to buy food for dinner and Peter goes, kind of conspiratorially, “Come here. I want to show you something.” He takes me into his father’s den, his library, and says, “Turn around.” He did something—he didn’t want me to see what he did—and the wall of books opened up. Behind it was all this stuff. Weapons—I couldn’t tell which kind, but guns. There was other stuff back there. It was like a secret compartment. I asked him, “What is that for?” He closed it back up quickly and said, “You know, my father has a price on his head.” I said, “Why? Is he a criminal?” He said, “No, he works for the CIA.” Then he said, “You know, my dad has killed people. He made toothpaste to kill someone.” Later on he told me, “Don’t tell anyone that you were in there, and don’t ever tell anyone you know that my father kills people.” Elizabeth, Sidney Gottliebs sons Ex Girlfriend

Unverified Sources

"There was an extensive amount of self-experimentation,” Gottlieb later testified. “We felt that a first-hand knowledge of the subjective effects of these drugs [was] important to those of us who were involved in the program.” u.s. district court for the district of columbia, civil action no. 80–3163, “deposition of sidney gottlieb,” april 19, 1983,

"Sometime during the fall of 1953, Mr. Sidney GOTTLIEB made a tour of the Far East for reasons unknown, but undoubtedly in connection with business of TSS … GOTTLIEB gave out samples of psychedelic drugs and ran some tests on various people out there using this drug. It is not definitely certain that it was LSD, nor do we know the details Mr. GOTTLIEB used in describing the chemical, but this appears to be the likely chemical. GOTTLIEB is also reported to have given some of the chemical to some of our staff officers in the [redacted] with the idea that the staff officer would place the chemical in the drinking water to be used by a speaker at a political rally in the [redacted] … It has been reported that chemicals, pills, or ampules having a psychedelic effect have been passed around to some of our people in [redacted], and whether these were handed out by GOTTLIEB or other TSS people is unknown … [Redacted], recently returned from Germany, said he heard of staff officers who had been given the chemicals and used them on subjects during interrogations … [Redacted] recently received information that the [redacted] have been working for TSS secretly on a project known as MK-ULTRA at the [redacted], apparently testing work on drugs and drugs in combination with hypnosis. Details are lacking … In 1942, OSS was attempting to study drugs which might be useful in the interrogation of prisoners of war. Connected with these experiments was one Major George H. White … It appears that White or someone else by the name of White has currently been picked up by TSS and is engaged in doing secret work on drugs at an apartment in New York City which TSS has hired for White … We are also informed that any effort to tamper with this project, MK-ULTRA, is not permitted."

"There is nothing such as a witting P-1 interrogation,” Gottlieb said. “The very nature of that kind of interrogation is unwitting. So when you ask, ‘Was there any administration of P-1 in interrogations other than unwitting?’ that’s kind of an oxymoron.” u.s. district court 2nd circuit, “deposition of sidney gottlieb,” september 19, 1995

"The shock treatment turned the then 19 year old honours student into a woman who sucked her thumb, talked like a baby, demanded to be fed from a bottle and urinated on the floor.” Dr Ewen Cameron

“(A) Agency employees would be able to participate in the work without the university or the hospital authorities being aware of Agency interest. (B) Agency sponsorship of sensitive research projects will be completely deniable. (C) Full professional cover will be provided for up to three bio-chemical employees of the Chemical Division. (D) Human patients and volunteers for experimental use will be available under controlled clinical conditions.”

"Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the All-Highest? Pretty good stuff, Brudder!” U.S. Court of Appeals 2nd Circuit, Plaintiff’s Confidential Exhibits, Volume III of III, Page E1383, George Hunter White Letter to Sidney Gottlieb


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