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The C.I.A. Doctors: Human Rights Violations by Book by Colin A. Ross

"The year 1963 marks the 30th year of the long-term evaluation of the effect of untreated syphilis in the male Negro conducted by the Venereal Disease Branch, Communicable Disease Center, United States Public Health Service. This paper summarizes the information obtained in this study—well known as the "Tuskegee Study"—from earlier publications" December 1964 The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis The 30th Year of Observation

"In 1932, the USPHS, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis. It was originally called the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male” (now referred to as the “USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee”). The study initially involved 600 Black men – 399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. Participants’ informed consent was not collected. Researchers told the men they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. In exchange for taking part in the study, the men received free medical exams, free meals, and burial insurance.

By 1943, penicillin was the treatment of choice for syphilis and becoming widely available, but the participants in the study were not offered treatment.

In 1972, an Associated Press story about the study was published. As a result, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs appointed an Ad Hoc Advisory Panel to review the study. The advisory panel concluded that the study was “ethically unjustified”; that is, the “results [were] disproportionately meager compared with known risks to human subjects involved.” In October 1972, the panel advised stopping the study. A month later, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs announced the endof the study. In March 1973, the panel also advised the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) (now known as the Department of Health and Human Services) to instruct the USPHS to provide all necessary medical care for the survivors of the study.1 The Tuskegee Health Benefit Program (THBP) was established to provide these services. In 1975, participants’ wives, widows and children were added to the program. In 1995, the program was expanded to include health, as well as medical, benefits. The last study participant died in January 2004. The last widow receiving THBP benefits died in January 2009. Participants’ children (10 at present) continue to receive medical and health benefits.

Later in 1973, a class-action lawsuit was filed on behalf of the study participants and their families, resulting in a $10 million, out-of-court settlement in 1974.

On May 16, 1997, President Bill Clinton issued a formal Presidential Apology for the study." The U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee, CDC Timeline (Not a direct quote from book)

"Senator KENNEDY: Did you feel during this period that you were being cured, that they were looking after your medical needs?

Mr. SHAW: I just got a slap on the back and they said you are good for 100 years. That is all I ever had .

Senator KENNEDY: How many years have they been slapping you on the back?

Mr. SHAW: Forty years .

Senator KENNEDY: You were in the study for forty years?

Mr. SHAW: Yes, sir .

Senator KENNEDY: Did they give you any kind of compensation while they were doing this study?

Mr. SHAW: No sir, with the exception of a 25-year certificate .

Senator KENNEDY: Twenty-five year what?

Mr. SHAW: Twenty-five year health certificate. They gave us a dollar a year, $25.00 .

Senator KENNEDY: A dollar a year?

Mr. SHAW: Yes, sir. Up to that time, from 1932, up until the time the 25-year limit ran out .

Senator KENNEDY: So the only compensation you received has been the $25.00?

Mr. SHAW: That is right .

Senator KENNEDY: What was the certificate of merit for?

Mr. SHAW: I do not know, sir. It was for regular attendance, that is all I can figure .

Senator KENNEDY: Do you think because you kept going back to the nurse or the doctor and letting them take your blood as they told you to do?

Mr. SHAW: Yes, sir .

Senator KENNEDY: When you were told to go back, did you think it was a check up and that since they didn’t prescribe medication, that therefore you were healthy? What did you assume?

Mr. SHAW: Every year they would give us a white tablet for pain and a little vial - I guess it was some type of tonic. Every year for forty years up to now, we had two different doctors. We would never get the same doctor back each time .

Senator KENNEDY: Different doctors?

Mr. SHAW: Different doctor every year .

Senator KENNEDY: When was the last time you were at the clinic?

Mr. SHAW: Last year .

Senator KENNEDY: What did they tell you last year?

Mr. SHAW: Slap on the back and said I was good for 100 years. I guess it was routine." Quality of Health Care--human Experimentation, 1973: Hearing of the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate (1973). Page 1211-1212

"The isolation of Operation CHAOS within the CIA and its independence from supervision by the regular chain of command within the clandestine services made it possible for the activities of the Operation to stray over the bounds of the Agency’s authority without the knowledge of senior officials. The absence of any regular review of these activities prevented timely correction of such missteps as did occur." The Nelson Rockefeller Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Page 25

"Unless the charge is supported by the presentation of interior items from the project, it should be relatively easy to “hush up” the entire affair, or to explain that it consists of legal mail cover activities conducted by the Post Office at the request of authorized Federal Agencies. Under the most unfavorable circumstances, including the support of charges with interior items from the project it might become necessary, after the matter has cooled off during an extended period of investigation, to find a scapegoat to blame for unauthorized tampering with the mails." INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES RESOLUTION 21 HEARINGS BEFORE THE SELECT COMMITTEE TO STUDY GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS WITH RESPECT TO INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED STATES SENATE NINETY - FOURTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 1 UNAUTHORIZED STORAGE OF TOXIC AGENTS SEPTEMBER 16, 17 AND 18, 1975 Page 223

"In all of these cases, these subjects have clearly demonstrated that they can pass from a fully awake state to a deep H controlled state via the telephone, via some very subtle signal that cannot be detected by other persons in the room and without the other individual being able to note the change. It has been clearly shown that physically individuals can be induced into H by telephone, by receiving written matter, or by the use of code, signal, or words and that control of those hypnotized can be passed from one individual to another without great difficulty. It has also been shown by experimentation with these girls that they can act as unwilling couriers for information purposes and that they can be conditioned to a point where they believe a change in identity on their part even on the polygraph." CIA Artichoke, Outline of Special H Cases, 7 January 1953 (Not A primary source so take it for what you think it's worth)

"Miss [whited out] was then instructed (having previously expressed a fear of firearms in any fashion) that she would use every method at her disposal to awaken Miss [whited out] (now in a deep hypnotic sleep) and failing in this, she would pick up a pistol nearby and fire it at Miss [whited out]. She was instructed that her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to “kill” [whited out] for failing to awaken. Miss [whited out] carried out these suggestions to the letter including firing the (unloaded pneumatic pistol) gun at [whited out] and then proceeding to fall into a deep sleep. After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened and expressed complete amnesia for the entire sequence. Miss [whited out] was again handed the gun, which she refused (in an awakened state) to pick up or accept from the operator. She expressed absolute denial that the foregoing sequence had happened." Hypnotic Experimentation and Research, 10 February 1954” (Not A primary source so take it for what you think it's worth)

"Dr. LASHBROOK All right. As I think I was intimating a little bit before, I cannot make much sense out of what you have read. It was intimated before, I think, a large part of the documents you have of this nature, are what we called boilerplate-

Senator KENNEDY Excuse me?

Dr. LASHBROOK Boilerplate. What was actually signed off on was not the same as the actual proposal, or actual project .

Senator KENNEDY How frequently do you use boilerplate? Do you sign off on things that are not relevant to what is happening?

Dr. LASHBROOK You have both. You have what you sign on, and the actual project, side by side.

Senator KENNEDY Who had got the real file?

Dr. LASHBROOK TSS. [Technical Services Staff of the CIA].

Senator KENNEDY You mean this is not the real file. It is stamped top secret.

Dr. LASHBROOK It is a real file. It is the one which goes through, receives the signatures, and is then filed.

Senator KENNEDY It is what?

Dr. LASHBROOK It is then filed?

Senator KENNEDY It is a real file, but does not mean anything, is that about what you are saying .

Dr. LASHBROOK It has administrative value.

Senator KENNEDY It is not telling what the story is?

Dr. LASHBROOK That is right. Not necessarily.

Senator KENNEDY Not necessarily?

Senator SCHWEIKER What is this, a cover file? Do we have cover files? Is that what we are dealing with?

Dr. LASHBROOK In a sense, and in a sense it was done for security. In other words, the files that went through the system and ended up in the financial Section - obviously TSS lost control of those files.

Senator SCHWEIKER So the FBI had a “do not file” procedure designed to handle this sort of thing, and the CIA has a cover file system to handle it. In this case, though, some of the cover files contain pretty damaging information that doesn’t seem to reflect well on the Agency’s use of human subjects - I wonder what the real files contain." Human Drug Testing by the CIA, 1977: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on HEALTH AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF THE COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES UNITED STATES SENATE NINETY - FIFTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION SEPTEMBER 20 AND 21, 1977 Page 111, 112

"The reason for separating this work financially from the other efforts of [whited out] in the Agency’s behalf is to allow him to engage in some very practical experiments at some point in the work which would present security problems if this effort were handled in the usual way. Some of the uses proposed for these particular animals would involve possible delivery systems for BW/CW agents or for direct executive action type operations as distinguished from the eavesdropping application of [whited out]." (NOT primary source found pdf through Icaact)

"Senator SCHWEIKER . Mr. Gittinger, a moment ago you mentioned brainwashing techniques, as one area that you had, I guess, done some work in. How would you characterize the state of the art of brainwashing today? Who has the most expertise in this field, and who is or is not doing it in terms of other governments? During the Korean War there was a lot of serious discussion about brainwashing techniques being used by the North Koreans, and I am interested in finding out what the state of the art is today, as you see it.

Mr. GITTINGER . Well, of course, there has been a great deal of work on this, and there is still a great deal of controversy. I can tell you that as far as I knew, by 1961, 1962, it was at least proven to my satisfaction that brainwashing, so called , is some kind of an esoteric device where drugs or mind-altering kinds of conditions and so forth were used, did not exist even though “The Manchurian Candidate” as a movie really set us back a long time, because it made something impossible look plausible. Do you follow what I mean? But by 1962 and 1963, the general idea that we were able to come up with is that brainwashing was largely a process of isolating a human being, keeping him out of contact, putting him under long stress in relationship to interviewing and interrogation, and that they could produce any change that way without having to resort to any kind of esoteric means" Project MKULTRA, the CIA’s Program of Research in Behavioral Modification, Senate Hearing 1977, Page 62

Unverified Sources

"Following this [whited out] commented on the very interesting angle that interrogations of the individuals who had come out of North Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently had apparently had a “blank” period or period of disorientation while passing through a special zone in Manchuria. [Whited out] pointed out that this had occurred in all individuals in the party after they had had their first full meal and their first coffee on the way to freedom. [Whited out] pointed out that [whited out] was attempting to secure further confirmatory facts in this matter since drugging was indicated." MEMORANDUM 15 July 1953 from the Chief, Bio-Chemistry & Pharmacology Branch, Medicine Division OSI [Office of Scientific Intelligence] to the Chief, Technical Branch, SO [Special Operations]

"A CIA Security Office employee was hypnotized and given a false identity. She defended it hotly, denying her true name and rationalizing with conviction the possession of identity cards made out to her real self. Later, having had the false identity erased by suggestion, she was asked if she had ever heard of the name she had been defending as her own five minutes before. She thought, shook her head and said, “That’s a pseudo if I ever heard one.” Apparently she had a true amnesia for the entire episode." CIA Artichoke, Analogous Case #3

"Jones learns to respond to stimuli intended for a Smith, as though he were that Smith. He has been “conditioned” to Smith, “deconditioned” to Jones.

Such trainings are integrated on all levels, conscious and subconscious. Hypnosis can assist in establishing the desired conditioned responses.

A C.R. (condit. resp.) is meant to stick. It can be interfered with, or abolished, by new training in another direction, or back to the earlier state.

Deconditioning can probably be expedited by hypnotizing procedures. Also, a C.R. can be interfered with or abolished by violent physical shocks (e.g., electric shocks to the brain) although this reporter has not found a specific electric-shock procedure that would assuredly decondition any particular kind or number of C.R.’s.

Still problematic is the use of drugs for deconditioning. Chlorpromazine ought theoretically to have some value, and some deconditioning effect has been produced in laboratory animals. However, hospitalized patients taking daily doses of this drug seem to have been deconditioned only selectively; against certain psychotic behavior. It may be that this property is exactly what we are looking for; perhaps it could decondition an enemy agent out of his simulated personality and back to his real one." Deconditioning and Conditioning,CIA

"[Whited out] was instructed that upon awakening, she would proceed to [whited out] room where she would wait at the desk for a telephone call. Upon receiving the call, a person known as “Jim” would engage her in normal conversation. During the course of the conversation, this individual would mention a code word to [whited out]. When she heard this code word she would pass into a SI trance state, but would not close her eyes and remain perfectly normal and continue the telephone conversation. She was told that thereafter upon conclusion of the telephone conversation, she would then carry out the following instructions:

[Whited out] being in a complete SI state at this time, was then told to open her eyes and was shown an electric timing device. She was informed that this timing device was an incendiary bomb and was then instructed how to attach and set the device. After [whited out] had indicated that she had learned how to set and attach the device, she was told to return to a sleep state and further instructed that upon concluding of the aforementioned conversation, she would take the timing device which was in a briefcase and proceed to the ladies room. In the ladies room, she would be met by a girl whom she had never seen who would identify herself by the code word “New York”. After identifying herself, [whited out] was then to show this individual how to attach and set the timing device and further instructions would be given the individual by [whited out] that the timing device was to be carried in the briefcase to [whited out] room, placed in the nearest empty electric-light plug and concealed in the bottom, left-hand drawer of [whited out] desk, with the device set for 82 seconds and turned on. [Whited out] was further instructed to tell this other girl that as soon as the device had been set and turned on, she was to take the briefcase, leave [whited out] room, go to the operations room and go to the sofa and enter a deep sleep state. [Whited out] was further instructed that after completion of instructing the other girl and the transferring to the other girl of the incendiary bomb, she was to return at once to the operations room, sit on the sofa, and go into a deep sleep state." SI and H Experimentation (25 September 1951),”

"Since the international situation is in its present state, I feel the need for positive action in the military application of hypnosis is imperative. In a field such as this you need an individual, such as myself, who has lived with the problems of hypnotism and its military applications for many years …

Please look over the enclosed proposal and give me your reaction. The hypnotic messenger technique is relatively uncomplicated. There are several other projects which I could submit to you for consideration which are, in my opinion, even more important than this but involve much more complicated techniques." February 6th, 1957

"The idea of a courier that has been hypnotized is not new and I am absolutely certain that [whited out] did not invent this idea. We ourselves have carried out much more complex problems than this and in a general sense I will agree that it is feasible.

[Whited out] proposal about using hypnotized individuals as counteragents is also not new and we, of course, have discussed this many times. Whether in fact it can be demonstrated we are not sure and it is hoped that the field tests we are working on may help us along these lines." MEMORANDUM from the Chief, Security Research Staff to the Chief, Technical Branch dated 15 July 1954

"I have developed a technic which is safe

and secure (free from international censorship). It has to do with the conditioning of our own people. I can accomplish this as a one man job.

The method is the production of hypnosis by means of simple oral medication. Then (with no further medication) the hypnosis is re-enforced daily during the following three or four days.

Each individual is conditioned against revealing any information to an enemy, even though subjected to hypnosis or drugging.

If preferable, he may be conditioned to give false information rather than no information.

This should be repeated every six months in each case, in order to be sure that the suggestions established have not “worn off.” I would be glad to go anywhere in the world (including Korea) to accomplish this for you. I think that the greatest security would be in my travelling as a naval flight surgeon doing research in aviation medicine, especially with the project of “motion sickness” in mind.

Of course I would be willing to undertake more hazardous investigative methods if you should deem them advisable." A/B 5, 264/1”

"Experiment 1 - N - 18 Hypnotically induced anxieties to be completed by September 1.

Experiment 2 - N - 24 Hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter, to be completed by September 1.

Experiment 3 - N - 30 Polygraph response under Hypnosis, to be completed by June 15

Experiment 4 - N - 24 Hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall a complex arrangement of physical objects.

Experiment 5 - N-100 Relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis.

Experiment 6 - The Morse code problem, with emphasis on relatively lower IQ subjects than found on University volunteers.

Experiment 7 - Recall of hypnotically acquired information by very specific signals." MEMORANDUM of 11 May 1953 Sidney Gottlieb

"G.C. This 14-year old Negro girl was brought up in a foster home and was of borderline intelligence. On two separate occasions her violent behavior resulted in the death of a young foster sibling, and she subsequently assaulted a 7-year old child at the state hospital where she was confined … Depth electrodes were placed in each amygdala through the posterior approach." Mark, V.H., & Ervin, F.R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. Reference to electric stimulation

"In the same patient electrical stimulation of the superior temporal convolution induced the appearance of feminine striving and confusion about his own sexual identity. These effects were specific, reliable, and statistically significant. For example, the patient, who was an 11-year old boy, said, “I was thinking whether I was a boy or a girl, which one I’d like to be,” and “I’d like to be a girl.” After one of the stimulations the patient suddenly began to discuss his desire to get married, expressing then a wish to marry the male interviewer. In two adult female patients stimulation of the same region was also followed by discussion of marriage and expression of a wish to marry the therapist. Temporal-lobe stimulation produced in another patient open manifestations and declarations of pleasure, accompanied by giggles and joking with the therapist." Dr Delgado

"Even internally in CIA, as few individuals as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields and of the identity of those who are working for us. At present this results in ridiculous contracts, often with cut-outs, which do not spell out the scope or intent of the work and which contain terms which the cut-out cannot incorporate in his contract with the researcher without revealing Government interest. Complete Government audits of such contracts are impossible for the same reason.” Memorandum from Richard Helms, Acting Deputy Director to CIA Director Allen Dulles dated 3 April 1953 and entitled “Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs” (MKULTRA and MKDELTA)

"Another case of obsession neurosis, suffering severe motor compulsions, who had not responded to any form of treatment, was put in isolation with the explicit aim of provoking a psychotic disorganization. He remained five days in isolation, began to manifest signs of depersonalization on the second day, and showed several acute psychotic episodes, lasting about three hours on the fourth and fifth days. The disorganization manifested itself, in part, as a marked disinhibition. He experienced many spontaneous orgasms, and manifested overt erotic behavior toward the nurses. His eating habits deteriorated, and his behavior was like that of a very hungry child during the feeding periods. In the post-isolation period he showed some reorganization and lost some of his motor compulsions. But because of the appearance of some paranoid tendencies, he was put on electric shock therapy, which resulted in considerable improvement and subsequent discharge." azima, h., cramer, f.j. effects of partial perceptual isolation in mentally disturbed individuals. diseases of the nervous system

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